Graham Corporation
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Vacuum Products
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Heat Transfer Products
Graham Corporation
Contact : China Subsidiary
Tel : +86.512.6288.7530
Email : rhagen@graham-mfg.com
Web : www.graham-mfg.com
Ejectors

Steam Jet Ejectors the largest vacuum producing devices available are used in the most demanding of applications. Virtually maintenance-free with no moving parts, they can be fabricated from almost any material, and can be used in every industry that requires vacuum. Ejectors can be designed to operate without steam as their pressurized (motive) source. In addition to operating well into the micron HgA range, they can also operate well above atmospheric pressure.

Graham has mastered Steam Ejector design. Featuring proven, unique internal geometries and tightly tolerance-controlled steam nozzle configurations, Graham ejectors produce very low steam consumption and highly efficient operation. As an experienced provider of Engineering Answers since 1936, Graham maintains the most comprehensive database of actual steam ejector performance information available today. 

Combine Graham Steam Jet Ejectors with other Graham equipment, such as Process Condensers and Liquid Ring Pumps, and you have a single source of supply and a responsible, total solution for process equipment needs.

Advantages

Graham Corporation brings more than 70 years of proven experience to the application, design, and operation of ejector systems. Our experience spans a wide range of applications and markets, including systems for space simulation, high vacuum applications in metals vacuum degassing, applications involving vapor-liquid and chemical equilibrium for fertilizer plants, sophisticated process simulation applications for crude vacuum distillation, and a host of other specialized and unique services.

Graham's experience combined with the company's continuous research and development efforts in ejector efficiency translate into real advantages for customers.

Advantages of Graham Steam Jet Ejectors

  • Proven Experience
  • Single Source of Supply
  • Comprehensive Product Testing
  • Ongoing Research and Development
  • Operating Efficiency Enhancements
  • Global Technical Support
Applications

Graham Steam Jet Ejectors are being used in many applications world-wide.  Some of these applications include:
  • Crude oil distillation
  • Petrochemical processes
  • Edible oil deodorization
  • Organic motivated systems
  • Fertilizer plant operations
  • Thermal compressors
  • Hybrid vacuum systems
  • Metals vacuum degassing
  • Space simulation

Crude oil distillation
Motor gas and lube oil refineries have a number of applications for ejector systems. Crude vacuum distillation, lube oil distillation, vacuum flasher, and gas oil hydrodesulphurization are the typical applications. Graham ejector systems support the majority of refinery vacuum distillation applications throughout the world. We have computer simulation programs that accurately model vacuum tower overhead hydrocarbons and we have specialized condenser designs for handling mixtures of miscible hydrocarbons and steam in the presence of large volumes of non-condensable gases.

Our vacuum condenser design supports the ejector systems by providing accurate simulation of vapor/liquid equilibrium, optimal condensation efficiency, and minimal pressure loss across the condenser.

Petrochemical processes
Petrochemical processes are vacuum intensive and there are requirements for single, two, three, and four stage ejector systems. Common processes include cumene, phenol, ethylene glycol/ethylene oxide, ethylbenzine/styrene monomer, amines, alcohols, and caprolactam, to name a few. Graham has a wealth of knowledge in the design, application, and integration of ejector systems into petrochemical applications.

Edible oil deodorization
Edible oil plants use Graham ejector systems for deodorization. These are four-stage ejector systems, operating in the range of 1 to 3 torr. Reliable operation is critical to provide proper deodorization of the oils. Other ejector applications in edible oil refineries include vacuum bleaching, hydrogenation, deaeration, and interesterification. Graham also provides ECOfreeze vacuum systems for edible oil deodorization.

Organic motivated systems
Use of alternative motive fluids may offer an advantage in specific applications. Graham has proven installations using ethylene glycol, monochlorobenzene, cyclohexane, methanol, phenol, and refrigerants as the motive fluid. Customers consider ejector systems using motive fluids other than steam under any of the following conditions:

  • When there is a need to recover product for use or disposal without water contamination and associated expense of removal
  • When solids are present or process vapors deposit in ejectors, but dissolve in an organic fluid
  • When backstreaming of steam into the process cannot be tolerated
  • When the presence of water may introduce a serious corrosion problem
  • When contaminant scrubbing is easier in the absence of water
  • When there is a desire to reduce or eliminate air and water volatile organic compound contamination

The main advantages of using an organic fluid for an ejector are the motive fluid acts as a solvent for the process vapors, the process is not contaminated with steam/water, chemical treatment problems are minimized, and the total energy requirements are considerably less than if steam were used as the motivating fluid. An organic motivated ejector system most often is a packaged, self-contained system that includes ejectors, condensers, a vaporizer, coolers, pumps, controls, piping, all auxiliaries, and packaging.

Fertilizer plant operations
Urea plant vacuum systems are specialized in that the design must incorporate features in the vacuum condensers due to exothermic heat reaction liberated by chemical reactions that occur. The design requires a combination of vapor-liquid and chemical equilibrium. It also is necessary to minimize the amount of ammonia gas exiting the vacuum system.

Graham has installed a number of urea plant vacuum systems throughout the world that are providing excellent performance, in many cases, they are running at capacities in excess of 100% without sacrificing vacuum in the concentration vessels. Graham also has provided a number of high pressure carbamate liquid eductors where high pressure carbamate solution is boosted in pressure with liquid ammonia for return back to the reactor.

Thermal compressors
Thermal compressors (or Thermocompressors) boost an intermediate steam load to a higher pressure with high-pressure motive steam. A common application is in vacuum concentration or evaporator service. Efficient thermal compression operation is vital for economic operation of the evaporation plant. Graham continues to develop improved thermal compressor designs to reduce energy consumption.

Hybrid vacuum systems
When the application calls for reducing motive steam usage by combining ejector and liquid ring vacuum pump technology, Graham manufactures both. A hybrid vacuum system will have ejectors for the primary (high vacuum) stages and a liquid ring vacuum pump will replace the last ejector stages. This provides an advantage of reducing motive steam consumption by replacing the last ejector stages with a liquid ring pump.

Metals vacuum degassing
Micron range ejector systems are required for metals vacuum degassing applications. Graham has supplied a number of installations where ultimate suction pressure is 10-30 microns.

Space simulation
High altitude or space simulation requires large multi-stage ejector systems. Graham has supplied a number of government agencies with these specialized vacuum systems.

Surface Condensers

By producing a vacuum at the turbine discharge, condensers increase the overall cycle efficiency. Graham has more than 70 years of design and fabrication experience in the steam surface condenser field. Our knowledge allows for an expedient, accurate design and fabrication process. Using design methodologies and practices that have been honed over time, we work closely with our customers to evaluate options that best meet each projects objectives.

Graham Steam Surface Condensers range from small packaged units used in the HVAC industry to large cylindrical condensers used for mechanical drive applications in power plants, refineries, or chemical processing plants. Circular shells to approximately 12 feet in diameter can be supplied to suit a variety of requirements. Due to shipping restrictions and costs, larger applications are provided in modular rectangular designs where the tube bundles and dome sections are joined at the jobsite.

Because of our considerable experience in condenser manufacturing, our ability to work with exotic materials as well as turbines with different exhaust configurations (down, top, axial), Graham can closely work with customers to evaluate options that best meet the specific requirements of any project.

Advantages

Graham completes all phases of work from inquiry bid through detail design, fabrication, and preparation for shipment of Steam Surface Condensers at our one facility. This approach helps ensure the highest degree of quality and efficiency.

Graham offers fully-optioned steam surface condenser packages to meet job specific requirements. Packaging creates a high quality product that minimizes installation effort and meets project-specific requirements.

Our Steam Jet Ejector and Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump air removal packages can be supplied with the Steam Surface Condenser as a complete system. Graham also manufactures the Graham Viking Atmospheric Relief Valve that provides an automatically resetting over-pressure protection for the steam side of the Steam Surface Condenser and turbine.

Advantages of Graham Surface Condensers

  • Over 70 years design and fabrication experience
  • Single source of supply
  • In-house finite element analysis and solid modeling
  • Wide range of sizes
  • Multiple options in materials and configurations
  • Fully-optioned packages
  • Complete range of accessory equipment
  • Compliant with engineering standards and design codes
  • Chinese Quality Safety License
  • Field supervision and service

Applications

Graham condensers have proven to be reliable and are chosen for applications throughout the world, a few of which are below:

  • Power
  • Chemical processing
  • Refinery
  • HVAC
  • Low oxygen condensate
  • Marine

Power
Graham can provide a steam surface condenser suitable for virtually any power generating application. We are completely familiar with the condensing requirements of the latest cogeneration and combined cycle power facilities and have supplied condensers for a wide variety of these plants. We have also supplied condensers for alternative energy applications, such as refuse derived fuel and geothermal.

Graham steam surface condensers for the power industry have been provided for turbines with down, top and axial exhaust configurations. Circular shells to approximately 12 feet in diameter can be supplied to suit a variety of utility requirements.

Due to shipping restrictions and costs, larger applications are provided in modular rectangular designs where the tube bundles and dome sections are joined at the jobsite. The Graham modular design utilizes a maximum of shop labor to minimize field assembly requirements. In addition, the Graham modular condenser design incorporates features that ensure accurate mating of modules, with a minimum of field effort, greatly reducing time and expense for field labor at the jobsite during final installation.

Chemical processing
Graham has provided steam surface condensers for ammonia, ethylene, methanol, and other processing facilities. The ability to work with exotic materials, along with vast experience with various chemical processes, provides Graham with a significant advantage in the industry. In addition, Graham retains a number of engineers on staff to provide assistance and expertise on various topics that arise in the field.

Refinery
Due to the vast experience that Graham has obtained in providing vacuum systems for refineries, a key advantage has been gained in the supply of steam surface condensers. Industry specific practices and intensive refinery specifications are familiar to Graham.

HVAC
Graham manufactures skid mounted packaged systems, including the condenser, air removal package, condensate pumps, controls, and instrumentation at our facility in Batavia, NY. This complete packaging creates a high quality product that minimizes installation effort for this highly competitive market. A central control panel and other project specific requirements can be supplied. A fully optioned package with job specific requirements is available in lieu of inflexible standard products.

Low oxygen condensate
The DO2?system has been developed by Graham to supply cold deaerated feedwater. Use of the system is normally applicable to plants with large amounts of cold makeup water and where it is beneficial to eliminate the installation and use of a pressure deaerator. The DO2?system consists of a specially designed condenser with segregated reheat hotwell, an enhanced venting system, and a makeup water vacuum deaerator.

The DO2?system is described in ASME paper 87-JPGC-PWR-9 "Case Study, Real Life Optimization of a 120 MW Combined Cycle Cogeneration Plant" by Richard B. Stanley of Bechtel Western Power Corporation and also described in a Graham article Condensate Oxygen Control in a Combined Cycle System Without a Conventional Deaerator.

Marine
Graham has provided steam surface condensers for main propulsion and turbine generator applications aboard naval and commercial vessels. The range of application varies from the design and fabrication of condensers used in the main propulsion systems of the largest of naval vessels to the supply of small condensers for use aboard commercial ships. Graham has the staff and facility to design and manufacture to the most demanding engineering-intensive military applications.

Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps

Graham liquid ring vacuum pumps are efficient and easy to maintain because there is only one rotating part. Our pumps are robust and can be started and stopped repeatedly, being fit to handle unexpected process upsets, including liquid in the suction, without damage. The exhaust gas stream is oil-free and low temperature.

Graham Liquid Ring Pumps can be fabricated in any material to meet the requirements of the process gas. In addition to operating to very deep vacuum levels, our Liquid Ring Pumps can also operate above atmospheric pressure to provide a very wide range of operation. While liquid ring pumps typically operate with water as the service liquid, Graham Pumps can operate with any liquid that is available.

The Graham Liquid Ring Pump is a proven design, with installations throughout the world. Graham has an extensive database of actual performance test data and can provide a Liquid Ring Pump suitable for nearly any application.

Graham has been providing Engineering Answers since 1936 and can easily combine Graham Liquid Ring Pumps with other Graham equipment, including Steam Jet Ejectors and Process Condensers, to provide a highly efficient vacuum system that optimizes capital and operating costs.


Advantages

Choose from a wide variety of materials to match almost any process. Standard pumps are available in cast iron, steel or stainless steel; while our COR-RESIST series is available in nickel aluminum bronze, Hastelloy, alloy 20, ni-resist, titanium, duplex stainless steel, as well as other alloys.

Graham Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps are efficient and easy to maintain because there is only one rotating part, a multi-bladed impeller keyed to the pump shaft. The impeller is mounted eccentrically in a round pump housing. As the impeller rotates, centrifugal force throws the seal liquid against the outside wall forming a liquid ring.

Because this pump operates at low noise and vibration levels, it can be easily installed in most locations inside or out.

Although water is the most common and readily available service liquid, the Graham Liquid Ring Pump can efficiently operate with many different fluids, such as ethylene glycol, ethylbenzene, caustic solution (NaOH), mineral oil or hydrocarbon solvents, just to name a few.

The Graham Liquid Ring Pump provides exceptional performance under all types of adverse operating conditions. Its designed to endure varying process loads and upset conditions without damage. This includes functioning trouble free with liquid in the suction, high inlet gas temperatures or condensable loads.

Advantages of Graham Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps

  • Reliable operation
  • Ease of maintenance
  • Wide range of materials
  • Engineered packaged systems
  • Stocked vacuum pumps
  • Readily available spare parts
  • Single source of supply

Applications

The versatility and ruggedness of the Graham Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump makes it a wise choice in a variety of applications:

  • Power generation equipment
  • Petrochemical
  • Seawater deaeration
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Ground water remediation/vapor extraction
  • Food production

Power generation equipment
The Graham liquid ring vacuum pump supplied to the power industry for condenser venting is a two-stage (two impeller) design housed in a single pump body. Our unique internal spray feature ensures the maximum amount of condensing before the gas enters the vacuum pump, much like a direct contact condenser. This feature allows the pump to handle more load because condensation ahead of the pump reduces volumetric flow rate.  To achieve capacity requirements, some companies utilize a spray tee ahead of the vacuum pump and air ejector to achieve the design pressure, or even attach a second stage impeller housing to a single stage pump.

All Graham condenser venting equipment is designed to perform per HEI (Heat Exchange Institute). At Graham, every condenser exhauster system we sell is designed to meet the venting capacity requirements specified per HEI at 1 inch HgA.

Graham is the only manufacturer that designs and builds Steam Surface Condensers, Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump Venting Systems, and Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump Waterbox Priming Systems. Our unique experience and understanding of how these systems work together allow us to provide the Engineering Answers the power generation industry requires.

Petrochemical
Graham has been producing Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump Packages for the petrochemical industry for many years. The applications where our liquid ring vacuum pumps have been utilized are diverse. Some common processes are cumene, phenol, ethylene glycol/ethylene oxide, ethyl benzene/styrene monomer, amines and alcohols, to name a few. We are experienced at supplying vacuum pumps and systems per the requirements of API specifications such as API-681, 610 and 682. As a regular supplier of ejectors, condensers, and heat exchangers to oil refineries, Graham manufactures ancillary system components to the exacting standards required by the petrochemical industry. Material requirements for sour service, such as NACE MRO-175-95 are not a problem.

Combine our liquid ring vacuum pumps with our ejectors and condensers for a hybrid package designed from the ejector suction to the separator discharge, all designed, manufactured and backed by a single company. With a multitude of experience in all of the system components, combined with petrochemical process knowledge, Graham can design and build the right system for any application.

Seawater deaeration
Looking for the leaders in seawater deaeration vacuum equipment? Graham has produced hundreds of vacuum pumps and ejectors for use on oil platforms throughout the world. You can find our equipment on oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, the North Sea, the Persian Gulf and across Asia. At the heart of our systems is our nickel-aluminum-bronze (AB2/BS1400) vacuum pumps, for which Graham is the industry leader in their production.

Nickel-aluminum-bronze offers the best of both corrosion resistance to seawater and economical pricing. It is not uncommon for Graham nickel-aluminum-bronze pumps to be in operation 10 to 15 years or longer than 316 stainless steel pumps in this harsh environment. Often, pumps in this service are supplied with Monel shafts and Xylan coated 316 stainless steel exterior bolting. Mechanical seal selection is determined by the application requirements.

Our deaeration systems dont stop with the vacuum pump. Systems normally consist of the vacuum pumps, atmospheric air ejectors, baseplates, separator tanks, and other ancillary equipment, such as the motors, couplings, and guards.

Ejectors are normally supplied in 316 stainless steel or Monel. Baseplates are coated in a heavy-duty epoxy consisting of a primer coat, two intermediate coats, and a polyurethane finishing coat. Separator tanks are manufactured from fiberglass-reinforced plastic.

All of our deaeration systems and individual components are designed to work efficiently together, while offering years of trouble-free service.

Pharmaceutical
For drying, laboratory, vapor recovery, house vacuum and everything in between, rely on Graham liquid ring pumps. Graham regularly supplies equipment for use in the pharmaceutical industry. Our liquid ring vacuum pumps are operating in processes the world over, drying product and recovering organic vapors. Liquid ring vacuum pumps are utilized to provide house vacuum on production lines. The choice to utilize liquid ring pumps stems from their unbeatable reliability.

Laboratories often get their vacuum from liquid ring vacuum pumps. A liquid ring vacuum pump's ability to handle slugs of liquid and low change in temperature across the pump, make it a common choice for laboratory systems where flammable mixtures may enter. Our system has also been used on less common applications, such as sampling and weighing equipment.

Ground water remediation/vapor extraction
Soil vapor extraction systems often utilize a Graham oil-sealed liquid ring vacuum pump for the vacuum source when low soil transmissivity conditions exist in the contaminated area. This condition requires a much greater vacuum to achieve acceptable vapor removal.

Oil sealed liquid ring pumps have many advantages in these applications. Due to the low vapor pressure of oil, a much greater vacuum can be achieved than with positive displacement blowers or even water sealed vacuum pumps. This allows extraction from wells greater than 30 feet deep. The oil sealed vacuum pump is used in a closed loop system and does not require water for sealing or cooling. This eliminates the need for treatment of contaminated water.

The Graham oil sealed liquid ring vacuum pump package consists of a Graham liquid ring pump, a vapor/liquid discharge separator, an oil mist coalescing filter, an air cooled heat exchanger, all associated piping, and necessary accessories for remote operation. Instruments provided can be explosion-proof rated. We can even supply the oil for the system.

Graham Corporation has a complete line of standard oil sealed liquid ring pump packages pre-engineered for soil vapor extraction and groundwater remediation application, or we can engineer a package to meet any particular specifications.

Food production
Graham liquid ring vacuum pumps are commonly used in the production of food. Most of the applications in the food industry are geared toward the removal of water. Concentrating fruit juice, adjusting the boiling point (temperature) of water during cooking, and flash cooling after a food item has been cooked are all common processes where liquid ring vacuum pumps may be found. Materials of construction for these systems are normally cast iron or 316 stainless steel. Many of these systems are supplied with a pre-condenser to remove most of the condensable load upstream of the liquid ring pump. This results in a much smaller vacuum system.

Graham manufactures pre-condensers specifically designed to work in conjunction with our liquid ring vacuum pumps in this service. The result is a single source of equipment supply and guarantee that the condenser and pump are designed to properly function together.

Process Condensers

A properly designed Graham Condenser between the process and vacuum producing equipment will yield significant advantages. The use of a process vacuum condenser can permit significant reduction in the size of the vacuum producing equipment. A condenser can recover for reuse valuable product thats carried from the process with non-condensable gases. It can reduce the amount of wastes produced by the vacuum system and lower the process operating cost. Graham Process Condensers can be designed for a wide variety installations: direct contact or surface type, mounted horizontally or vertically, freeze condensation or conventional condensation type. 

Matching the Process Vacuum Condenser with vacuum producing equipment is the best way to meet the process objectives. Graham manufactures both the Process Condenser and the vacuum producing equipment. This single-source responsibility provides a unitized system that is matched to the process.

Advantages

Having all major components built by Graham means there is a single point of contact for the engineering, manufacturing, testing, and after-market support. Project schedule is maintained because the control over manufacturing of all major components is by Graham. Product quality and operational reliability are insured because the equipment is engineered and built by individuals who understand how the entire system operates and how it integrates into the larger process.

Advantages of Graham Process Condensers

  • Proven Experience
  • Single Source of Supply
  • Comprehensive Product Testing
  • Ongoing Research and Development
  • Operating Efficiency Enhancements
  • Global Technical Support

Applications

Some of the applications where you may see the Graham Process Condenser being efficiently utizilied are:

  • Crude oil vacuum distillation
  • Plastics, resins and fibers
  • ECOfreeze (unique condenser technology)

Crude oil vacuum distillation
Refinery vacuum installation processes may elect to use a process condenser ahead of an ejector system. This will depend on the operating pressure of the process and the volatility of the overhead process vapors.

Graham has proven installation experience and has provided numerous systems throughout the world where vacuum condensation ahead of an ejector system is used. The overhead load from a distillation vessel is a mixture of complex hydrocarbons, steam, and a large volume of non-condensable gases. The application is sophisticated due to the complex vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations and the design of the process condenser must minimize pressure drop. By keeping pressure drop to a minimum, condensation efficiency is maximized and the size and operating cost of the energy-intensive ejector system are kept to a minimum.

Plastics, resins and fibers
In the manufacture of plastics, resins, and fibers, or other petrochemical processes, there often is a requirement for a process vacuum condenser between the vacuum vessel and vacuum producing equipment. These applications often involve high vacuum with large volumes of condensable vapors that are to be condensed in the process condenser. Normally, non-condensable gas flow rate is not too significant, but the challenge is to minimize pressure drop and maximize hydrocarbon condensation. The loading may contain hydrocarbons that have high freeze point temperatures and the tube wall must be maintained above the freeze point.

Graham has specialized designs where the vacuum condenser will mount directly atop the vacuum vessel. This minimizes pressure drop, thus improving condensation in the condenser and reducing the size of vacuum producing equipment.

ECOfreeze
Removing process vapors entirely in the process condenser and before they can enter the vacuum producing equipment offers significant advantages. The Graham ECOfreeze System has two process condensers; one operates in an ice-building mode, while the other undergoes a defrosting. By trapping the process vapors in the condenser as a solid it results in the vacuum equipment handling non-condensable gas only. This will significantly reduce the size of the vacuum producing equipment and minimize wastes produced by the vacuum system.

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