Chemoprojekt, a.s. is Czech Design, Engineering and Contracting Company, which has been operating since its foundation in 1950 as a leading supplier for the organic and inorganic chemistry sector, petrochemistry, crude oil refining, natural gas processing, pulp and paper production, power generation and environmental protection.

Based on its extensive experience in the chemical industry sector, particularly chemical engineering and technology, Chemoprojekt offers the following services:

·         Turn - key project execution
·         Engineering, design and consulting services, statutory proceeding
·         Procurement
·         Construction execution, assembly, supervision
·         Commissioning, testing, after hand-over services
·         Analyses and studies
·         Research and manufacturing activities in the field of chemical materials
·         Training of the personnel

Chemoprojekt medium-term product strategy in focused on the following fields:

·        Inorganic chemistry, nitrogen chemistry (diluted and concentrated nitric acid, urea including granulation, ammonia, nitrogen fertilizers)
·         Organic chemistry, hydrogen, nitrobenzene, aniline, polyphenylen ether (PPE)
·         Biofuels of 1st and 2nd generation
·         Refineries, petrochemistry (oil, gas)
·         Industrial infrastructure and pipelines
·         Food processing industry – breweries, sugar refineries

After successful audit in July 1996, LRQA awarded Chemoprojekt the ISO 9001 Quality Certificate for Design and Project Management. In July 1997, the certification was extended to Procurement and Complex Engineering Services. The present certificate is after recertification in July 2005 valid until end of July 2009. Chemoprojekt is also holder of the certificate ISO 14001. Since 2003  Chemoprojekt has validated environmental management system in accordance with European Council regulation, which is known under term EMAS.

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Contact : Tomas Plachy, PhD.
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 In the year of 1969 Chemoprojekt and Stamicarbon concluded a licence and know how agreement, enabling Chemoprojekt to design and construct urea plants on the basis of the modern Stamicarbon CO2 stripping technology.

Chemoprojekt has been successful from the beginning in design and start up of a number of urea plants. Already in the year of 1970 first two contracts for the fertiliser factory VEB Stickstoffwerk Piesteritz in the East Germany were concluded. The first free units with the capacity of 1050 MTPD each were designed and successfully put into operation. Further on a row of the other urea plants followed.

Up to the present time Chemoprojekt has designed together 19 new units and 2 intensification projects ever since based on the Stamicarbon urea process. Chemoprojekt is one of the selected Stamicarbon s contractors for urea. The single unit capacities, designed by Chemoprojekt, range from 1000 up to 1670 MTPD. Six of the plants were designed for production of urea with low biuret content using the technology of crystallisation and melt prilling. The other units are usual processes with evaporation and melt prilling, producing urea with standard biuret content.

Top Urea technology 2000 plusTM
Chemoprojekt is entitled to design the newest modern urea plants based on the Stamicarbon Urea 2000 plus(tm) technology. This new Urea process is an improved CO2 stripping technology, comprising application of pool condenser, pool reactor and a number of other significant improvements. Results of these improvements are mainly lower investment costs now required for the CO2 stripping synthesis section and generally a better reliability of the HP synthesis. Investment for the other downstream parts of the urea plant are by the new technology not affected.

The lowest possible consumption figures, better operation flexibility and lower operating costs are typical for this new technology as well. Stamicarbon improvements of the previous CO2 stripping technology can be realised in two ways. The first one, suitable for the debottlenecking of the old urea plants especially, is application of the HP pool condenser. Pool condensation is characterised by additional reaction volume, higher operating temperature, lower pressure drop, less cooling area, non sensitive behaviour to deviations of NH3/CO2 ratios and by the absence of inverse response phenomena. Pool condenser is installed in a horizontal position. LP steam is generated in the bundle and gases around the bundle are partially condensed and partially dehydrated to form urea and water. Additional reaction volume was achieved by this arrangement. Result of the horizontal position of the horizontal position of the condenser is that the height of Stamicarbon stripping plants has been substantially reduced.

The application of the HP pool reactor established a totally new concept for the whole HP synthesis. Besides the same advantages as for the HP, pool condenser further features concerning investment costs as well as technology arise. Basis for lower investment is the omission of costly HP vessel, HP ejector, far less HP piping in the synthesis section and lower steel and concrete structure. Pool reactor is installed in a horizontal position and in such a way the height of the plants has been immensely reduced.

Revamping processes

There are several revamping concepts developed by Stamicarbon for Urea technology. From these revamping concepts the following expectations about capacity increase are given:

Concept type Expected capacity increase
More in more out 10 – 25 %
In-line medium pressure recirculation 15 – 30 %
The medium press. recirculation add-on 30 – 45 %
The double stripper 35 – 45 %
The pool condenser 40 – > 100 %
The achievable plant capacity increase depends on the original used design
margins of the large capital equipment.
Pool reactor – headliness
The application of the HP pool reactor established a totally new concept for the whole HP synthesis. The arrangement of the HP pool reactor greatly simplified the original HP synthesis loop. In comparison with the former one, only the CO2 stripper was left unchanged to maintain all the technological advantages of CO2 stripping. However, the stripper off-gases are now condensed in a submerged condenser forming an intrinsic part of the urea reactor. In this way, two complete process steps were combined in one horizontal vessel. The combination of HP pool condenser and reactor is called HP pool reactor. Besides the same advantages as for the HP pool condenser further features
concerning investment costs as well as technology arise. Basis for Loir investment is the omission of costly HP vessel, HP ejector, far less HP piping in the synthesis section and lower steel and concrete structure. Pool reactor is installed in a horizontal position and in this way the height of the plants has been immensely reduced. The baffles in the reactor prevent backmixing, thus allowing the nearest approach to equilibrium in the urea reaction and, consequently, the highest conversion and most economical downstream equipment sizing.

More in more out concept
• The installation of the new high-efficiency trays (improvement of carbon dioxide conver.)
• Narrowing the design margins in the synthesis section
• Addition of heating and condensation capacity in the several process and utility sections

In-line medium pressure recirculation concept
• Minimizing of the recycled amount of water back to synthesis and increase of carbon efficiency of 3-4 %
• The medium pressure recirculation, operating at 18 bar and located in between the high-pressure stripper and low-pressure recirculation section
The double stripper concept
• Parallel operated high-pressure strippers added in the synthesis; the urea solution, leaving synthesis is partly sent to the existing stripper and partly to the new one
• Parallel evaporation and urea finishing section is a part of debottlenecking
• Limitation of this concept is the capacity of the HP carbamate condenser
The pool condenser concept
• Installation of the horizontal HP condenser increases capacity of reaction volume and HP-condensation as well
• Parallel operated high-pressure strippers similar to the double stripper concept
• This concept is available especially for debottlenecking of conventional plants (change to a stripping process brings a capacity increase and drastically utility consumption in decrease)
Rotation disc absorbers

In the process, the air is enriched with gaseous ammonia and fine urea powder. The rotation disc absorber is an apparatus designed for creating an intensive contact between a gas and a liquid. It makes efficient use of the entrainment of the liquid phase (when related to the total apparatus cross section) so that large volumes of gases can be processed in a single apparatus. The RDA apparatus has been so far the most successfully utilized in the control of emissions from prilling towers in the urea plant.
In view of the very low concentrations of ammonia at the gas entry, use of the “acid technology” was suggested, i.e. absorption of NH3 in an aqueous solution of ammonium sulphate and ammonium hydrogen sulphate (20% by weight, pH = 1 to 2) which produces the minimum amount of waste.

Stamicarbon granulation

Chemoprojekt is entitled to design and supply urea granulation units with Stamicarbon licence based on fluid granulation concept. The first, pilot unit with capacity 280 tonnes/ day was realized in 1996. Afterwards, the technology was improved for utilization in high-capacity urea units. Currently, the units with capacity from 1200 tonnes per day till 3600 tonnes per day are in operation in one production line. The process is characteristic for its solidity and resistance of the granules against abrasion, which implies high reliability of granulation unit. Other advantage is low emission of the dust particles, which attains the values amounting to 25mg/Nm3 of air. On one of the first installed units with capacity 2000 tonnes/day there was attained 100 day consecutive operation without necessity to clean the unit. To other significant attributes linked with the technology belong:
■ Low formaldehyde content, which is lower by 0,3% in comparison with similar technologies
■ Size of 90% granules is 2 – 4 mm
■ Stable operation of the unit
■ Essential savings of operational costs in comparison with other technologies

Production of combined fertilizer (UAN- urea ammonium nitrate)
Except erection of the prilled, respectively granulated urea Chemoprojekt cooperates with Stamicarbon in the feld of combined fertilizer - urea ammonium nitrate, which is produced as dilution of urea (34%), ammonium nitrate (46%) and water (20%). Urea ammonium nitrate is fertiliser; its utilization has been enlarged in recent years, mainly in Europe and in North America because of its advantage mainly in view of usage of means of mechanization.

Chemoprojekt, a. s. is experienced and authorized company to design the modern Nitric acid plants based on the technology provided by French company GPN (member of TOTAL Corporation).  GPN (earlier  Grande Paroisse s.a.), is one of the world leaders in the branch of technology for nitrogen fertilizer production based on nitric acid  and one of the greatest nitrogen fertilizer producer in Europe. In last 5 years nitric acid belongs to the most succesful products of Chemoprjekt. 

1) Nitric acid for fertilizer industry

The base material for nitrogen fertilizers as well as for other chemical products is nitric acid, which is usually produced in 60-68% concentration.
For production of fertilizers is mainly utilized the nitric acid with 60% concentration. Production of weak nitric acid    (60-68%) is based on two technological processes – mono pressure and dual pressure process:

Mono pressure process – has lower investment cost, but operating costs (specific consumption of amonium and loss on catalyst) are slightly worse than in case of  dual pressure process. Mono pressure process is usually used for capacity of the unit lower than 1000 tonnes/day (calculated for pure nitric acid).
Dual pressure process is operationly more suitable and more sophisticated. The operation parametres are more convenient, but the investment costs are higher than by units using mono pressure process. Currently dual pressure process is realized in BAT (Best Available Technology) and is highly reccommended.
Technology preference depends on economic indicators, but can be also influenced by other parametres and local conditions. 
The fertilizer industry uses weak nitric acid in the range of 50 to 70% strength. Operating range is 70-110% of nominal plant capacity.

The typical plants for production of 60% nitric acid are designed as a single pressure or dual pressure units. For production rates up to 1000 MTPD single pressure process is preferred due to economic and operating conditions, for units with higher capacity is dual pressure process preferred due to reduction of capital costs.

Simplified process description:
In the single pressure plants, the oxidation and absorption steps take place at essentially the same pressure. The oxidation and absorption steps can be classified as:
·         Low pressure (pressure below 0,1 MPa)
·         Medium pressure (pressure between 0,1 and 0,6 MPa)
·         High pressure (pressure between 0,6 and 1,3 MPa)
The raw material for production of nitric acid air and liquid ammonia. Filtered atmospheric air is compressed to one of above mentioned pressure levels. Liquid ammonia fed to the Nitric acid plant is vaporized and mixed with compressed air. The mixed air/ammonia gas is directed to the catalytic oxidizing reactor, which is connected  with boiler for waste heat . Nitrous gases from the burner are cooled down and the energy is recovered with steam production, tail gas and process air heating.
During final cooling down weak acid is condensed, nitrous gases are recycled to the absorption tower at 0,7 MPa where they react with water to form nitric acid. The product is bleached with secondary air and cooled down before sending to battery limit.. The tail gas (reduced nitrous gas) leaves to the absorption tower in temperature from 25 to 35°C with concentration NOx approximately 1000 ppmv. Tail gas is heated by hot hot nitrous gas on the output from the boiler. Residual content of  NOx in tail gas is dissolved by selective catalytic reduction. The energy of hot tail gas is recovered by passing the expander, where it expands from operation pressure to pressure close atmospheric pressure and is then passed by the stack to the atmosphere.

·         Proven reliability
·         Low investment costs
·         Low NOx tail gas content (up to 100 ppm after SCR)

2) Dual pressure process

Simplified process description:
Ammonia oxidation occurs at low pressure while high pressure improve absorption of the nitrous gases and process of an acid formation. Liquid ammonia imported to the Nitric acid plant is evaporated and mixed with air before oxidation in the burner at low pressure about 0,4 MPa. Maximum energy is recovered by steam generation and cooling of nitrous gases via cross exchange with tail gas. After further cooling of the low pressure nitrous gases with simultaneous weak acid condensation gases are compressed to above 1,1 MPa in the NOx compressor. The high pressure nitrous gases are then cooled by cross exchange with tail gas and further weak acid condensation before entering the absorption tower where they react with water to form nitric acid. The product acid is bleached with secondary air and cooled down before sending to battery limit. The tail gas from the absorption tower is heated in the tail gas heater and than mixed with ammonia and introduced to the selective catalytic reactor (SCR) for reduction of  N20 content. Nitric acid from absorber is stripped by hot air and cooled before dispatch to the store.

·         Proven reliability
·         Low investment costs
·         High ammonia conversion efficiency
·         High heat recovery
·         Low NOx tail gas content (up to 50 ppm after SCR)

3) Nitric acid for explosives and organic chemistry

High concentrated nitric acid (98% to 99% concentration) can be usually obtained by concentrating the weak nitric acid (30% to 70% concentration) using extractive distillation. The distillation must be carried out in the presence of a dehydrating agent.

·         Proven reliability
·         High heat recovery
·         NOx content up to 100 ppm

4) N2O Emission Reduction

Kyoto Protocol - the international treaty on climate change has come into force after it has been ratified by Russia at the end of 2004.
Until ratification of Kyoto Protocol very little concern has been paid to N2O comparing to NOx. N2O arises as an unwanted by-product of ammonia catalytic oxidation during HNO3 production in quantities ranging typically from 350 to 3500ppmv.
Considering one ton of N2O accounts for 310 tons of CO2 equivalent in terms of emissions trading, N2O reduction in tail gas has become high importance issue for HNO3 producers as well as for the entire governments.
N2O contrary to NOx cannot be absorbed from tail gas and therefore new catalytic processes shall be applied.
Nowadays, two feasible processes of N2O destruction exist and both can be provided by Chemoprojekt a.s.

- High temperature (880-930C) catalytic reduction just under platinum gauzes
- Middle temperature (380-450C) catalytic reduction – so called end of technology process

Both processes reduce N2O content in tail gas exceeding overall N2O conversion of 90% thus preparing HNO3 production units for new more stringent regulations on N2O emissions which shall yet to come.

Our main Oil & Gas projects started in Czech Republic by construction of the refinery in Kralupy in 1950s and continued by construction of 5 stages of Homs refinery in Syria and refineries in Basrah and Sallahuddin in Iraq performed on turn-key basis starting from 1957 in several stages and projects till 1990 (embargo in Iraq).

Refining projects were consisting of complete refinery units (atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, hydrotreaters, sulphur recovery, amine recovery, complete utilities and off-sites). Our company is experienced also in designing and execution of petrochemical plants (polyethylene, polypropylene and polyphenylene ether).

For instance, recently we have been realizing EPC projects for the Czech client Ceska rafinerska a.s. regarding to high pressure desulphurization hydrogentation and connecting destilation of oil  fractions and projects ensuring increasing of safety of operation by distilling furnaces and furnaces for hydrogentation desulphurization of petrol, gas oil and paraffin.

Furthermore activities expanded into gas sector by designing of gas treating plant of Jbisseh in Syria including connecting 490 km  gas pipeline  to refinery HOMS.

In following years Chemoprojekt’Oil & Gas projects were expanded to other countries for example Belarus, Russian Federation, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Uzbekistan, Greece, Belgium etc.

Beside our process units references we have many references in auxiliary facilities, storages, tankfarms, loading facilities, relocations of product lines, fire safety etc. In 2008 there was realized EPC project for 4 reservoirs with capacity 10 000 m3 for  power fuels  including connecting filling pump, fire extinguishing, piping system, control system and electro part  for the client CEPRO,a.s.

Our main projects in realization are Rehabilitation of Natural Gas plant, Sosnogorsk, Russian Federation for Skoda JS/ Koch-Glitsch, Hydrogen unit, MOL refinery, Hungary for Snamprogetti and Gasification liquid by-products for energy gas production, Vresova, Czech Republic for Sokolovska uhelna, a.s.

Chemoprojekt, a.s. provided part of the basic design for the project of Rehabilitation of Natural Gas plant in Sosnogorsk, Komi Republic, Russian Federation and complete detailed design consisting of process, civil, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation engineering parts, including the fire-safety design.

Chemoprojekt has also many activities in Iraq at the present time, for example:
Basrah - catalytic reformer licensed by AXENS, capacity: 10 000 bpsd, EP project.,
Basrah ?deisohenizer for isomeration unit licensed by UOP, capacity: 13 638 bpsd, EP project
Baiji ?isomeration unit  licensed by AXENS, capacity: 19 660 bpsd, EP project

For better view of complexity of our scope of work kindly refer to Petroleum Refining scheme and to selected references for process units and auxiliary facilities.

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